What we measure

Our intestinal flora analysis is presented under four categories:

  • Potentially pathogenic bacteria
  • Bacteria that may be associated with health problems
  • Diversity and F / B ratio
  • Bacteria associated with good health

Bacteria associated with good health

These bacteria considered both necessary and beneficial, with high values deemed favorable to your entire body.

The bacteria Akkermansia

Akkermansia is a bacterium that in some studies has been shown to stimulate growth of the intestinal protective mucus layer in which it also lives (1, 2). A couple of studies have shown a reduced amount of Akkermansia in high body weight (3-8), type 1 and 2 diabetes in mice (9) and humans (10, 11), and in a type of autoimmune colon inflammation (12).

Akkermansia has in a study been shown to produce propionic acid which has an anti-inflammatory effect. Together with the protection from the intestinal mucosa, this indicates that Akkermansia could help maintain a protection for the intestinal mucosa (13).

Since the low incidence of Akkermansia has been seen in obesity, research is being done on how to prepare a probiotic preparation (live bacteria) (14) from Akkermansia for help in obesity.

More information about Akkermansia.

The lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium

Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are bacteria that in a sufficient amount can affect the body positively. Some of these bacteria have been shown to lower cholesterol levels in the blood (1), others may help break down lactose (2), they may have the potential to counteract irritable bowel syndrome (3), others may relieve eczema (but not allergies; 4, 5) and some could help counteract chronic constipation (6).

Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (7, 8) have in some studies been shown potential to inhibit pathogenic microbes (9), balance the body's immune system (10, 11), and promote the production of butyric acid and propionic acid (see below), amino acids (12 ) and vitamins (13).

The bacteria Faecalibacterium prausnitzii

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii has in studies shown potential to be able to supply nutrients to the cells in the colon mucosa (1, 2), have an anti-inflammatory effect in the intestine (3) and contribute to reduced adipose tissue inflammation in the body (increased amount of adipose tissue is considered to contribute to low-grade inflammation; 4) . The presence of Faecallibacterium prausnitzii could in one study be linked to increased insulin sensitivity (decreased insulin requirement) in type 2 diabetes (5).

Bakcteria that produce butyrate and propionate

Research studies have shown that the fatty acids butyric acid and propionic acid, which can be produced by certain bacteria in the intestinal flora, could have anti-inflammatory properties (1-5), but could also contribute to reduced appetite and reduced food intake in mice (6-9) and humans. (10,11), and possibly affect the metabolism positively (12-20). Butyric acid has also been shown to help improve the intestinal barrier function by reduce its permeability increased permeability in the intestine may lead to toxic substances passing through the intestinal mucosa and further out into the body (21-24)).

A growing number of scientific studies suggest that butyric acid and to some extent also propionic acid could play a role in the prevention of certain colon diseases such as ulcerative colitis and colon cancer (25-29).

The ability of the intestinal flora to digest lactose

Studies have shown that certain bacteria could break down lactose into a product that causes less bloating or diarrhea, which may be relevant for people who are sensitive to lactose (1-3).

Bacteira that produce folic acid

Humans need folic acid to build up and repair DNA, which is relevant since we are daily exposed to a variety of harmful substances, including from our food. Folic acid is found in a number of foods and is absorbed in the small intestine (1). Research shows that folic acid can be produced by certain intestinal bacteria. This could mean that a local production of folic acid in the gut can potentially benefit the cells in the lining of the colon by contributing to an optimal DNA repair (2-4).

Bacteria that may be associated with health problems

Bacteria that have been shown to be associated with IBS and type 2 diabetes are shown here (however, it has not been proven that these can cause diseases). In general, you should preferably have as low levels of these as possible.

Bacteroides vulgatus

The intestinal mucosa is covered with a layer of protective mucus, which normally builds up at the same rate as it breaks down. Scientific studies have shown that Bacteroides vulgatus has the ability to break down this layer of protective mucus. (1-6). This in itself does not have to result any health problems, but if you have higher levels of these bacteria as well as problems with gas, stomach pain and cramps, it may be of interest to try to lower the levels of these bacteria. Scientific studies have also shown that higher levels of Bacteroides vulgatus may be associated with inflammatory conditions such as ulcerative colitis in animals, (7) in Crohn's disease, (8-11) where Bacteroides vulgatus is thought to be able to prevent healing of the mucous membrane(12). High levels of this bacteria has bee associated with pre-diabetes and type -2 diabetes. (13, 14).

Ruminococcus gnavus

The intestinal lining is covered with a protective layer of mucus called mucin. Scientific studies have shown that the bacteria Ruminococcus gnavus has the ability to digest this protective layer of mucus. With low levels of this bacteria this is not necessarily coupled to any health problems, but if you have higher levels of these bacteria as well as problems with gas, stomach pain and cramps, it may be of interest to try to lower the levels of these bacteria.

Scientific studies have shown that higher levels of Ruminococcus gnavus are associated with IBS and inflammatory conditions such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, but a trend towards higher levels in pre-diabetes and type-2 diabetes have also been observed. Interestingly, higher levels of Ruminococcus gnavus have been found in children with eczema and asthma.

Ruminococcus torques

Why may it be desirable to reduce Ruminococcus torques? Scientific studies in animals have shown that Ruminococcus torques has the ability to break down the intestinal mucosal protective layer of mucus (1-4) which in itself does not necessarily mean any health problems, but if you have higher levels of these bacteria and problems with gas, stomach pain and cramps so it may be of interest to try to bring down the levels of these bacteria. Higher levels of Ruminococcus torques have been shown to be associated with IBS (5-7) and inflammatory conditions such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (3, 8-9) Results after bariatric surgery (intestinal by-pass against obesity) and improved diabetes type 2 showed interestingly lowered levels of Ruminococcus torques. (10).

Diversity and F/B ratio

Here you will find out the diversity (species richness) of your intestinal flora and the relationship between the bacterial groups Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes.

Diversity (species richness)

Studies of bacterial species richness can be compared to an analysis of a complicated ecosystem (1-6). If you have a low species richness of intestinal bacteria, you can try to increase the levels of bacteria with the help of diet and supplements. Studies have shown that dietary changes resulted in increased species richness of bacteria in the gut (7-9) and were linked to a lower risk of weight gain (10).

The reation (relationship) between the bacterial groups Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes

Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes are the two largest bacterial groups in the intestinal flora. The microbes that belong to these genera are, on the whole, considered beneficial to the body. Problems can arise when there is a relative imbalance in the proportion between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Increased growth of Firmicutes at the expense of Bacteroidetes has for instance been observed in obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.

Potentially pathogenic bacteria

Here you will, for example, find bacteriea related to “food poisoning” (also called tourist diarrhea). In general one should preferably have as low levels of these as possible.

Here you will find our references

  • Scientific references

    1. Ruseler-van Embden, J. G., van der Helm, R., & van Lieshout, L. M. (1989). Degradation of intestinal glycoproteins by Bacteroides vulgatus. FEMS microbiology letters, 49(1), 37–41.
    2. Salyers, A. A., Vercellotti, J. R., West, S. E., & Wilkins, T. D. (1977). Fermentation of mucin and plant polysaccharides by strains of Bacteroides from the human colon. Applied and environmental microbiology, 33(2), 319–322.
    3. Muriel Derrien, Mark W.J. van Passel, Jeroen H.B. van de Bovenkamp, Raymond Schipper, Willem de Vos & Jan Dekker (2010) Mucin-bacterial interactions in the human oral cavity and digestive tract, Gut Microbes, 1:4, 254-268.
    4. Png, Chin, Wen, et al. "Mucolytic Bacteria With Increased Prevalence in IBD Mucosa Augment In VitroUtilization of Mucin by Other Bacteria". American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 105, no. 11, November 2010, pp. 2420–2428.
    5. L. C. Hoskins, E. T. Boulding, T. A. Gerken, V. R. Harouny & M. S. Kriaris (1992) Mucin Glycoprotein Degradation by Mucin Oligosaccharide-degrading Strains of Human Faecal Bacteria. Characterisation of Saccharide Cleavage Products and their Potential Role in Nutritional Support of Larger Faecal Bacterial Populations, Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, 5:4, 193-207
    6. Tailford, Louise E et al. “Mucin glycan foraging in the human gut microbiome.” Frontiers in genetics vol. 6 81. 19 Mar. 2015 (review)
    7. Onderdonk, A B et al. “Production of experimental ulcerative colitis in gnotobiotic guinea pigs with simplified microflora.” Infection and immunity vol. 32,1 (1981): 225-31. djur
    8. Saitoh, Shin et al. “Bacteroides ovatus as the predominant commensal intestinal microbe causing a systemic antibody response in inflammatory bowel disease.” Clinical and diagnostic laboratory immunology vol. 9,1 (2002): 54-9
    9. Rath, H C et al. “Differential induction of colitis and gastritis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats selectively colonized with Bacteroides vulgatus or Escherichia coli.” Infection and immunity vol. 67,6 (1999): 2969-74.
    10. Lucke, Katja et al. “Prevalence of Bacteroides and Prevotella spp. in ulcerative colitis.” Journal of medical microbiology vol. 55,Pt 5 (2006): 617-624.
    11. Ó Cuív, Páraic et al. “The gut bacterium and pathobiont Bacteroides vulgatus activates NF-κB in a human gut epithelial cell line in a strain and growth phase dependent manner.” Anaerobe vol. 47 (2017): 209-217.
    12. Fujita, H., Eishi, Y., Ishige, I., Saitoh, K., Takizawa, T., Arima, T., & Koike, M. (2002). Quantitative analysis of bacterial DNA from Mycobacteria spp., Bacteroides vulgatus, and Escherichia coli in tissue samples from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Journal of gastroenterology, 37(7), 509–516.
    13. Leite, Aline Zazeri et al. “Detection of Increased Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels and Prevalence of Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus in the Feces of Type 2 Diabetes Patients.” Frontiers in immunology vol. 8 1107.
    14. Pedersen, H., Gudmundsdottir, V., Nielsen, H. et al. Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity. Nature 535, 376–381 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature18646
    15. Crost, EH et al. (2013). Utilisation of mucin glycans by the human gut symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus is strain-dependent. PloS one, 8(10), e76341.
    16. Crost, EH et al. (2016). The mucin-degradation strategy of Ruminococcus gnavus: The importance of intramolecular trans-sialidases. Gut microbes, 7(4), 302–312.
    17. Rajilić-Stojanović M et al. (2011) Global and deep molecular analysis of microbiota signatures in fecal samples from patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2011 Nov;141(5):1792-801.
    18. Matthew T et al. (2019) Ruminococcus gnavus, a member of the human gut microbiome associated with Crohn’s disease, produces an inflammatory polysaccharide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jun 2019, 116 (26) 12672-12677;
    19. Hall, AB et al. (2017). A novel Ruminococcus gnavus clade enriched in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Genome Med 9, 103
    20. Willing BP, et al. (2010) A pyrosequencing study in twins shows that gastrointestinal microbial profiles vary with inflammatory bowel disease phenotypes. Gastroenterology 139: 1844–1854.
    21. Joossens M et al.. (2011) Dysbiosis of the faecal microbiota in patients with Crohn’s disease and their unaffected relatives. Gut 60: 631–637.
    22. Prindiville T et al. (2004) Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of mucosa-associated bacteria in Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 10: 824–833.
    23. Png CW et al. (2010) Mucolytic bacteria with increased prevalence in IBD mucosa augment in vitro utilization of mucin by other bacteria. Am J Gastroenterol 105: 2420–2428.
    24. Rodrigues, RR. et al. (2021) Transkingdom interactions between Lactobacilli and hepatic mitochondria attenuate western diet-induced diabetes. Nat Commun 12, 101
    25. Allin KH, et al. (2018) Aberrant intestinal microbiota in individuals with prediabetes. Diabetologia. 2018;61(4):810-820.
    26. Chua, HH et al. (2021) Intestinal dysbiosis featuring abundance of ruminococcus gnavus associates with allergic diseases in infants.” Gastroenterology vol. 154,1 (2018): 154-167.
    27. Hoskins, LC et al. Mucin degradation in human colon ecosystems. Isolation and properties of fecal strains that degrade ABH blood group antigens and oligosaccharides from mucin glycoproteins.The Journal of clinical investigationvol. 75,3 (1985): 944-53
    28. L. C. Hoskins, E. T. Boulding, T. A. Gerken, V. R. Harouny & M. S. Kriaris (1992) Mucin Glycoprotein Degradation by Mucin Oligosaccharide-degrading Strains of Human Faecal Bacteria. Characterisation of Saccharide Cleavage Products and their Potential Rolein Nutritional Support of Larger Faecal Bacterial Populations, Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, 5:4, 193-207
    29. Png CW et al. (2010) Mucolytic bacteria with increased prevalence in IBD mucosa augment in vitro utilization of mucin by other bacteria. Am J Gastroenterol 105: 2420–2428.
    30. Corfield, A. P., Wagner, S. A., Clamp, J. R., Kriaris, M. S., & Hoskins, L. C. (1992). Mucin degradation in the human colon: production of sialidase, sialate O-acetylesterase, N-acetylneuraminate lyase, arylesterase, and glycosulfatase activities by strains of fecal bacteria.Infection and immunity,60(10), 3971–3978.
    31. Rajilić-Stojanović M et al. (2011) Global and deep molecular analysis of microbiota signatures in fecal samples from patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2011 Nov;141(5):1792-801.
    32.  Delphine MS et al. (2011) Gastrointestinal Microbiome Signatures of Pediatric Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterology. Vol 141, Issue 5, p. 1782.1791, 2011.
    33. Lyra A et al. (2009) Diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome distinguishable by 16S rRNA gene phylotype quantification.World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(47):5936-5945.
    34. Kwak, MS et al. “Development of a Novel Metagenomic Biomarker for Prediction of upper gastrointestinal tract involvement in patients with Crohn's disease.”Frontiers in microbiologyvol. 11 1162. 3 Jun. 2020.
    35. Nishida, A et al. Gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.Clinical journal of gastroenterologyvol. 11,1 (2018): 1-10.
    36. Gurung M, et al. Role of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology. EBioMedicine. 2020;51:102590. doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.11.051
    37. The Human Microbiota in Health and Disease. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENG.2017.01.008
    38. The Human Microbiota in Health and Disease. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENG.2017.01.009
    39. The Human Microbiota in Health and Disease. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENG.2017.01.010
    40. The Human Microbiota in Health and Disease. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENG.2017.01.011
    41. The Human Microbiota in Health and Disease. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENG.2017.01.012
    42. Eckburg PB, Bik EM, Bernstein CN, Purdom E, Dethlefsen L, Sargent M, Gill SR, Nelson KE, Relman DA. Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora. Science. 2005 Jun 10;308(5728):1635-8. Epub 2005 Apr 14.
    43. David LA, Maurice CF, Carmody RN, Gootenberg DB, Button JE, Wolfe BE, Ling AV, Devlin AS, Varma Y, Fischbach MA, Biddinger SB, Dutton RJ, Turnbaugh PJ. Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Nature. 2014 Jan 23;505(7484):559-63.
    44. Wu GD, Chen J, Hoffmann C, Bittinger K, Chen YY, Keilbaugh SA, Bewtra M, Knights D, Walters WA, Knight R, Sinha R, Gilroy E, Gupta K, Baldassano R, Nessel L, Li H, Bushman FD, Lewis JD. Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes. Science. 2011 Oct 7;334(6052):105-8.
    45. Julien Tap, Jean‐Pierre Furet, Martine Bensaada, Catherine Philippe, Hubert Roth, Sylvie Rabot, Omar Lakhdari, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Gérard Corthier, Eric Fontaine, Joël Doré and Marion Leclerc. Gut microbiota richness promotes its stability upon increased dietary fibre intake in healthy adults. Environmental Microbiology. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13006 Cited by: 52
    46. C Menni, M A Jackson, T Pallister, C J Steves, T D Spector and A M Valdes, Gut microbiome diversity and high-fibre intake are related to lower long-term weight gain. International Journal of Obesity, volume 41, pages 1099–1105 (2017)
    47. Derrien M, Vaughan EE, Plugge CM, de Vos WM (2004) Akkermansia muciniphila gen.nov., sp. nov., a human intestinal mucin-degrading bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol54(Pt 5):1469–1476.
    48. Belzer C, de Vos WM (2012) Microbes inside—from diversity to function: The case of Akkermansia. ISME J 6(8):1449–1458.
    49. Santacruz A, et al. (2010) Gut microbiota composition is associated with body weight,weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Br J Nutr 104(1):83–92.
    50. Karlsson CL, et al. (2012) The microbiota of the gut in preschool children with normal and excessive body weight. Obesity (Silver Spring) 20(11):2257–2261.
    51. Collado MC, Isolauri E, Laitinen K, Salminen S (2008) Distinct composition of gut microbiota during pregnancy in overweight and normal-weight women. Am J Clin Nutr 88(4):894–899.
    52. Everard A, et al. (2011) Responses of gut microbiota and glucose and lipid metabolism to prebiotics in genetic obese and diet-induced leptin-resistant mice. Diabetes 60(11): 2775–2786.
    53. Karlsson CL, Onnerfält J, Xu J, Molin G, Ahrné S, Thorngren-Jerneck K. The microbiota of the gut in preschool children with normal and excessive body weight. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Nov;20(11):2257-61.
    54. Hansen CH, et al. (2012) Early life treatment with vancomycin propagates Akkermansia muciniphila and reduces diabetes incidence in the NOD mouse. Diabetologia 55(8):2285–2294.
    55. Yassour M, Lim MY, Yun HS, Tickle TL, Sung J, Song YM, Lee K, Franzosa EA, Morgan XC, Gevers D, Lander ES, Xavier RJ, Birren BW, Ko G, Huttenhower C (February 2016). "Sub-clinical detection of gut microbial biomarkers of obesity and type 2 diabetes". Genome Medicine. 8 (1): 17.
    56. Karlsson FH, Tremaroli V, Nookaew I, Bergstrom G, Behre CJ, Fagerberg B, et al. Gut metagenome in European women with normal, impaired and diabetic glucose control. Nature. 2013;498(7452):99–103. [PubMed]
    57. Qin J, Li Y, Cai Z, Li S, Zhu J, Zhang F, et al. A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2012;490(7418):55–60. [PubMed]
    58. Fischer H, Holst E, Karlsson F, Benoni C, Toth E, Olesen M, Lindén M, Sjöberg K. Gut. Altered microbiota in microscopic colitis. 2015 Jul;64(7):1185-6.
    59. Louis 2017: Formation of propionate and butyrate by the human colonic microbiota https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13589
    60. Brodmann T, Endo A, Gueimonde M, Vinderola G, Kneifel W, de Vos WM, Salminen S, Gómez-Gallego C. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union. Front Microbiol. 2017 Sep 12;8:1725.
    61. Kumar, Manoj; Nagpal, Ravinder; Kumar, Rajesh; Hemalatha, R.; Verma, Vinod; Kumar, Ashok (2012). ”Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics as Potential Biotherapeutics for Metabolic Diseases”. Experimental Diabetes Research 2012.
    62. Sanders ME (2002-02-01). ”Considerations for use of probiotic bacteria to modulate human health”. The Journal of Nutrition 130 (2S Suppl): sid. 384S–390S. PMID 10721912.
    63. Ford, Alexander C.; Quigley, Eamonn M. M.; Lacy, Brian E.; Lembo, Anthony J.; Saito, Yuri A.; Schiller, Lawrence R.. ”Efficacy of Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Synbiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Chronic Idiopathic Constipation: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 109 (10): sid. 1547–1561.
    64. Panduru, M.; Panduru, N.m.; Sălăvăstru, C.m.; Tiplica, G.-S.. ”Probiotics and primary prevention of atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies”. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 29 (2): sid. 232–242.
    65. Cuello-Garcia, Carlos A.; Brożek, Jan L.; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Pawankar, Ruby; Yepes-Nuñez, Juan José; Terracciano, Luigi. ”Probiotics for the prevention of allergy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 136 (4): sid. 952–961.
    66. Dimidi, Eirini; Christodoulides, Stephanos; Fragkos, Konstantinos C.; Scott, S. Mark; Whelan, Kevin. ”The effect of probiotics on functional constipation in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (4): sid. 1075–1084.
    67. O’Callaghan et al., 2016. Bifidobacteria and Their Role as Members of the Human Gut Microbiota. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00925
    68. Butel, 2013. Probiotics, gut microbiota and health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2013.10.002
    69. Gogineni et al., 2013. Probiotics: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Applications. https://www.omicsonline.org/probiotics-mechanisms-of-action-and-clinical-applications-2329-8901.1000101.php?aid=13381
    70. Bermudez-Brito et al., 2012. Probiotic Mechanisms of Action. https://doi.org/10.1159/000342079
    71. Rios-Covian et al., 2016. Intestinal Short Chain Fatty Acids and their Link with Diet and Human Health. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00185
    72. Lee K, Lee J, Kim YH, Moon SH, Park YH. Unique properties of four lactobacilli in amino acid production and symbiotic mixed culture for lactic acid biosynthesis. Curr Microbiol. 2001 Dec;43(6):383-90.
    73. Maddalena Rossi, Alberto Amaretti, and Stefano Raimondi. Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria. Nutrients. 2011 Jan; 3(1): 118–134.
    74. Petra Louis Harry J. Flint. Diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine. FEMS Microbiology Letters, Volume 294, Issue 1, 1 May 2009, Pages 1–8.
    75. Miquel S, Martín R, Rossi O, Bermúdez-Humarán LG, Chatel JM, Sokol H, Thomas M, Wells JM, Langella P. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2013 Jun;16(3):255-61.
    76. Sokol H, Seksik P, Furet JP, Firmesse O, Nion-Larmurier I, Beaugerie L, Cosnes J, Corthier G, Marteau P, Doré J. Low counts of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in colitis microbiota. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009 Aug;15(8):1183-9.
    77. Furet JP, Kong LC, Tap J, Poitou C, Basdevant A, Bouillot JL, Mariat D, Corthier G, Doré J, Henegar C, Rizkalla S, Clément K. Differential adaptation of human gut microbiota to bariatric surgery-induced weight loss: links with metabolic and low-grade inflammation markers. Diabetes. 2010 Dec;59(12):3049-57.
    78. Alessandra Puddu, Roberta Sanguineti, Fabrizio Montecucco, Giorgio Luciano Viviani. Evidence for the Gut Microbiota Short-Chain Fatty Acids as Key Pathophysiological Molecules Improving Diabetes. Mediators Inflamm. 2014; 2014: 162021. Published online 2014 Aug 17.
    79. Smith PM, Howitt MR, Panikov N, Michaud M, Gallini CA, Bohlooly-Y M, Glickman JN, Garrett WS. The microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, regulate colonic Treg cell homeostasis. Science. 2013 Aug 2;341(6145):569-73. doi: 10.1126/science.1241165.
    80. Furusawa Y, Obata Y, Fukuda S, Endo TA, Nakato G, Takahashi D, et.al. Commensal microbe-derived butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic regulatory T cells. Nature. 2013 Dec 19;504(7480):446-50. doi: 10.1038/nature12721.
    81. Arpaia N, Campbell C, Fan X, Dikiy S, van der Veeken J, deRoos P, Liu H, Cross JR, Pfeffer K, Coffer PJ, Rudensky AY. Metabolites produced by commensal bacteria promote peripheral regulatory T-cell generation. Nature. 2013 Dec 19;504(7480):451-5.
    82. Corrêa-Oliveira R, Fachi JL, Vieira A, Sato FT, Vinolo MA. Regulation of immune cell function by short-chain fatty acids. Clin Transl Immunology. 2016 Apr 22;5(4):e73.
    83. Schirmer 2016: Linking the Human Gut Microbiome to Inflammatory Cytokine Production Capacity. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.10.020
    84. Byrne CS, Chambers ES, Morrison DJ, Frost G. The role of short chain fatty acids in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. Int J Obes (Lond). 2015 Sep;39(9):1331-8.
    85. Cani PD, Neyrinck AM, Maton N, Delzenne NM. Oligofructose promotes satiety in rats fed a high‐fat diet: involvement of glucagon‐like peptide‐1. Obes Res 2005; 13: 1000–1007.
    86. Anastasovska J, Arora T, Canon GJS, Parkinson JR, Touhy K, Gibson GR et al. Fermentable carbohydrate alters hypothalamic neuronal activity and protects against the obesogenic environment. Obesity 2012; 20: 1016–1023.
    87. So P-W, Yu W-S, Kuo Y-T, Wasserfall C, Goldstone AP, Bell JD et al. Impact of resistant starch on body fat patterning and central appetite regulation. PLoS One 2007; 2: e1309.
    88. Cani PD, Lecourt E, Dewulf EM, Sohet FM, Pachikian BD, Naslain D, De Backer F, Neyrinck AM, Delzenne NM. Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1236-43.
    89. Parnell JA, Reimer RA. Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;89(6):1751-9.
    90. De Vadder F, Kovatcheva-Datchary P, Goncalves D, Vinera J, Zitoun C, Duchampt A, Bäckhed F, Mithieux G. Microbiota-generated metabolites promote metabolic benefits via gut-brain neural circuits. Cell. 2014 Jan 16;156(1-2):84-96.
    91. Gao Z, Yin J, Zhang J, Ward RE, Martin RJ, Lefevre M, Cefalu WT, Ye J. Butyrate improves insulin sensitivity and increases energy expenditure in mice. Diabetes. 2009 Jul;58(7):1509-17.
    92. Lin HV, Frassetto A, Kowalik EJ Jr, Nawrocki AR, Lu MM, Kosinski JR, Hubert JA, Szeto D, Yao X, Forrest G, Marsh DJ. Butyrate and propionate protect against diet-induced obesity and regulate gut hormones via free fatty acid receptor 3-independent mechanisms. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35240.
    93. Cani PD, Neyrinck AM, Fava F, Knauf C, Burcelin RG, Tuohy KM, Gibson GR, Delzenne NM. Selective increases of bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-diet-induced diabetes in mice through a mechanism associated with endotoxaemia. Diabetologia. 2007 Nov;50(11):2374-83.
    94. Turnbaugh PJ, Hamady M, Yatsunenko T, Cantarel BL, Duncan A, Ley RE, Sogin ML, Jones WJ, Roe BA, Affourtit JP, Egholm M, Henrissat B, Heath AC, Knight R, Gordon JI. A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature. 2009 Jan 22;457(7228):480-4.
    95. Sonnenburg JL, Bäckhed F. Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism. Nature. 2016 Jul 7;535(7610):56-64.
    96. Santacruz, 2010. Gut microbiota composition is associated with body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114510000176
    97. Zupancic, 2012. Analysis of the Gut Microbiota in the Old Order Amish and Its Relation to the Metabolic Syndrome. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043052
    98. Schwiertz, 2012. Microbiota and SCFA in Lean and Overweight Healthy Subjects. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2009.167
    99. Peng L, Li ZR, Green RS, Holzman IR, Lin J. Butyrate enhances the intestinal barrier by facilitating tight junction assembly via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Nutr. 2009 Sep;139(9):1619-25.
    100. Zheng L, Kelly CJ, Battista KD, Schaefer R, Lanis JM, Alexeev EE, Wang RX, Onyiah JC, Kominsky D, Colgan SP. Microbial-Derived Butyrate Promotes Epithelial Barrier Function through IL-10 Receptor-Dependent Repression of Claudin-2. J Immunol. 2017 Oct 15;199(8):2976-2984.
    101. https://www.lifesciencesweden.se/article/view/660512/undersoker_fibrers_effekt_mot_diabetes
    102. https://www.mynewsdesk.com/se/pressreleases/forskning-som-kan-bota-folksjukdom-2261291
    103. Hamer HM, Jonkers K, Venema S, van Houtvin FJ, Troost R and Brummer J. Review article: the role of butyrate on colonic function, Issue 2, January 2008; 104-119
    104. Berni Canani R, Di Costanzo M, Leone L, Pedata M, Meli E and Antonio Calignano. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Mar 28; 17(12): 1519–1528.
    105. Ohara T and Mori T. Antiproliferative Effects of Short-chain Fatty Acids on Human Colorectal Cancer Cells via Gene Expression Inhibition. Anticancer Research September 2019 vol. 39 no. 9 4659-466
    106. Venegas DP, de la Fuente MK, Landskron G, González MJ, Quera R, Dijkstra G,. Harmsen HMJ, Nico Faber KN an d A. Hermoso MA. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs)-Mediated Gut Epithelial and Immune Regulation and Its Relevance for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Front Immunol. 2019; 10: 277. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00277
    107. http://nordisknutrition.se/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/0804_s25-28_Kortkedjiga_fettsyror_i_tarmen_ger_positiva_effekter-Nyman_M.pdf
    108. M. Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Andrew J. Ritter, Dennis Savaiano, Andrea Monteagudo-Mera, Carlton Anderson, Scott T. Magness, and Todd R. Klaenhammer. Impact of short-chain galactooligosaccharides on the gut microbiome of lactose-intolerant individuals. PNAS January 17, 2017 114 (3)
    109. Julia K. Goodrich, Emily R. Davenport, Andrew G. Clark, and Ruth E. Ley. The Relationship Between the Human Genome and Microbiome Comes into View.Annual Review of Genetics. Vol. 51:413-433
    110. M C Martini E C Lerebours W J Lin S K Harlander N M Berrada J M Antoine D A Savaiano. Strains and species of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milks (yogurts): effect on in vivo lactose digestion. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 54, Issue 6, 1 December 1991, Pages 1041–1046.
    111. Strozzi GP, Mogna L. Quantification of folic acid in human feces after administration of Bifidobacterium probiotic strains. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 Sep;42 Suppl 3 Pt 2:S179-84.
    112. Magnúsdóttir S, Ravcheev D, de Crécy-Lagard V, Thiele I. Systematic genome assessment of B-vitamin biosynthesis suggests co-operation among gut microbes. Front Genet. 2015 Apr 20;6:148.
    113. Duthie SJ. Folate and cancer: how DNA damage, repair and methylation impact on colon carcinogenesis. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011 Feb;34(1):101-9.
    114. Said HM. Recent advances in carrier-mediated intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins. Annu Rev Physiol. 2004;66:419-46.