GutClear™ - reboot your gut

A tender and swollen belly can be caused by an overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine. This is called small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

GutClear™ is taken for 10 days and is a plant-based antimicrobial dietary supplement that can reduce the amount of bacteria in the small intestine without affecting the gut flora of the large intestine. Gut bacteria are good to have; in the right place, that is, in the large intestine.

This is how GutClear™ works
Regular price Sale price 440 SEK
including VAT.

Delivery to your mailbox 1-3 working days after ordering.

A peace of mind for your gut

GutClear™ consists of jatoba and magnolia tree bark, rose root and psyllium seeds. It is a dietary supplement for those who experience problems such as a tender and belly and is taken for 10 days. 

Stomach problems can caused by too many bacteria in the small intestine, a condition known as SIBO (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth). GutClear™ can reduce the amount of bacteria in the small intestine and thereby help the stomach and intestines to function normally. 

Increased well-being without unwelcome bacteria in the small intestine

Bloated belly, tenderness, nausea, gas, constipation, heartburn and diarrhea are common stomach complaints. If you have some of these, you probably recognize yourself in having tried to handle these complaints with diets and nutritional supplements.

If your trials have failed, this may be explained by an underlying small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). A diet based on an increased intake of dietary fibers may even worsen your problems as these fibers may feed those unwelcome bacteria in the small intestine. In these conditions it may be a good idea to give the intestine a restart by reducing the unfavorable bacteria first.

Find the root cause

In the media, rightly so, the gut flora is hailed as being important and beneficial for health and well-being. Also, we are told that it is advantageous to have large amounts of bacteria in your gut. The colon is adapted to hold large amounts of bacteria. Under normal circumstances, we also have a small amount of bacteria in the small intestine (a hundred billionth less bacteria compared to in the colon).

However, often due to stress, too many bacteria may colonize the small intestine. Since the small intestinal mucosa has the function to absorb nutrients and be permissible to many substances coming from the food and being delivered to the blood, a high bacterial load in the small intestine may cause problems. For instance, when bacteria in the small intestine digest dietary fibers, gases and bacterial breakdown products are formed which can negatively affect the mucosal lining and produce a bloated and tender belly. With bacterial by-products (toxins) being translocated through the mucosa of the small intestine, these products may negatively affect the immune system and nerve cells which are situated in the wall of the small intestine.

A dietary antimicrobial supplement such as GutClear™ can help reduce the level of bacteria in the small intestine. By this, dietary fiber will not be digested by small gut bacteria causing discomfort there. Instead, the ingested dietary fibers will pass undigested to the large intestine, which is adapted for these bacterial processes, in contrast to the small intestine.

GutClear™ - for a tender and bloated belly


For those with gut problems, such as a sore and swollen belly, we recommend that you start with a 10-day course of GutClear™ before doing an intestinal flora analysis. A common cause of these problems is that you have bacteria in the wrong place, in the small intestine, also called SIBO and stands for "small intestinal bacterial overgrowth". An increased intake of fiber-rich food can even worsen these problems. GutClear™ can help you reduce bacteria in the small intestine and give your beneficial gut bacteria in the colon a fresh start.  

Regular price Sale price 440 SEK
including VAT.

Delivery to your mailbox 1-3 working days after ordering.

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Information about GutClear™

  • Product information

    GutClear® is a powder of plant substances that you mix in water and take for 10 days. The powder consists of bark from the jatoba and magnolia trees, rose root and psyllium seeds. Bark from the magnolia tree, jatoba and rose root have antimicrobial effects which and mixed with psyllium seeds produces a gelatinous mass that excerts its antimicrobial effects throughout it’s passage along the small intestine continuously secreting these antimicrobial substances passing through the small intestine. With fewer bacteria in the small intestine, the digestion of dietary fibers is prevented there., which means that the bacteria in the large intestine can take part in the digestion of fibres instead. By this it is also possible to bring about a more normal bowel function and regular bowel emptying. Psyllium seeds can in itself also support the gut to function normally and help with bowel movement and digestion. GutClear™ has a slightly bitter taste. 

    GutClear® is a patent-pending dietary supplement, No. 2151409-6

    GutClear® is registered with the Patent and Registration Office, no. 616571

  • List of ingredients

    Number of doses per pack: 10 sachets of 3500 mg per sachet

    A sachet contains powder of:

    1500 mg psyllium seeds (Plantago ovata, India)

    1000 mg bark from the jatoba tree (Hymenaea courbaril, Brazil)

    500 mg bark from the magnolia tree (Magnolia officinalis Rehder & E.H.W, China)

    500 mg roseroot (Rhodiola rosaea, Canada)

    Ingredients: psyllium seeds, bark from the jatoba and magnolia tree and rose root.

    Country of origin: Psyllium seeds originating in India, bark from the jatoba tree originating in Brazil, bark from the magnolia tree originating in China and root of rose root originating in Canada. The production of GutClear® takes place in Sweden.

  • Side effects

    GutClear® dissolved in a glass of water has a slightly bitter taste. On rare occasions, lighter sensations from the stomach have been observed shortly after ingestion, which can be remedied with a sip of coffee, tea or juice. Mild problems in the form of transient increased gas release can occur, which can be considered as a "receipt" that the dietary fibers have arrived in the large intestine, where these fibers belong and should be degraded.

    After the first dose, transient fatigue and/or headache is occasionally observed, which may be due to a so-called Herxheimer’s reaction from the elimination of small gut bacteria. If so, then make a 1-2 day pause with GutClear®.

  • Caution / contraindications

    • In case of hypersensitivity to psyllium seeds (Plantago ovata) GutClear® should not be taken.
    • The magnolia bark in GutClear® contains magnolol and honokiol, which in animal experiments have been shown to increase the tendency to bleed at doses of 10 mg/kg body weight for magnolol and 0.5 mg/kg for honokiol. For a person weighing 80 kg, this means that 800 mg of magnolol and 40 mg of honokiol could increase the tendency to bleed. One sachet of GutClear® contains a maximum of 50 mg of magnolol and 25 mg of honokiol, i.e. amounts below the described levels that could potentially increase the tendency to bleed. For blood thinning treatment, however, consult a doctor.
    • GutClear® should not be used during pregnancy and lactation.
    • GutClear® should not be taken by people who have had their colon surgically removed.
    • GutClear® is not recommended for children under 12 years of age.

    Storage: Dry at room temperature and inaccessible to children.

    GutClear® is a dietary supplement and does not replace a varied diet.

  • Here’s how / Dosage

    Dosage: 1 sachet per day is taken on an empty stomach, preferably in the morning. Wait at least 20 minutes to eat or drink after taking GutClear®. The recommended daily dose of 1 sachet should not be exceeded. GutClear® can after the end of a round of 10 sachets be taken as a single dose if needed.

    Here's how: Pour the contents into ½ glass of water (about 1 dl) and whisk around with a fork until everything is dissolved, which may take about a minute. Then top up with another ½ glass of water, stir and drink immediately, followed by another glass of water.

  • Responsible manufacturer and contact information

    Gutfeeling Labs AB

    Scheelevägen 2

    223 81 Lund

    For questions about GutClear®, write

  • Common questions from our costumers

    What should I do to prevent a return of my upset stomach after finishing a round of GutClear®

    • Try a maintenance dose with one sachet of GutClear™ 1-2 times a week for 5-10 weeks.
    • Try to have a break of at least four hours between meals to allow the small intestine to be empty of food and heal (avoid snacks).
    • Try drinking ½ glass of water containing 1 teaspoon of apple cider vinegar about 20 minutes before a meal
    • Try intermittent fasting, for example skipping breakfast, which can then give bowel rest between the evening meal and lunch in 14-16 hours). 
    • Try regular exercise. 
    • Stress negatively affects the functioning of the stomach and intestines. See if you can reduce the stress in your life, for example through mindfulness, relaxation exercises and walks in nature

    How do you know that GutClear™ only removes bacteria in the small intestine and not in the large intestine?

    When we compare results from gut flora analyses before and after a person has taken GutClear™, we observe that the diversity of bacteria is unchanged but not infrequently we see that diversity has increased. This is a strong indication that antimicrobials in GutClear™ do not reach the colon and benefit the bacteria there. 

    Since bacteria in the small intestine “steal” the dietary fibres that actually should benefit bacteria in the small intestine, it can be assumed that when the bacterial level in the small intestine is reduced through GutClear™, more fibres can pass through the small intestine without being digested by bacteria there and instead end up in the large intestine where the colon bacteria can benefit and grow in number. A "receipt" for increased amounts of dietary fibres reaching the large intestine is that after a few days with GutClear™ you often experience increased gas, which then subsides. This is explained by the increased access to dietary fibres of the colon bacteria. This gas subsequently decreases when the bacteria in the colon are balanced. 

    Does GutClear™ have any side effects?

    If you have had pronounced SIBO for a long time, you may experience flu-like symptoms and nausea the first 1-3 days with GutClear™. This may be due to the release of breakdown products and toxins from large amounts of bacterial remnants in the small intestine. This is called Herxheimer's reaction and is in itself not harmful and similar to reactions sometimes observed during treatment of infections with conventional antibiotics. However, we recommend in the above situations that you take a break with GutClear™ for 1-2 days before starting again.  

    I did not notice any effect from GutClear™, what should I do?

    We recommend that you continue to take GutClear™ at the same dose daily for another round in 10 days, or take 1-2 doses of GutClear™ per week during 5-10 weeks.

    How should I eat while taking GutClear™?

    You should eat as usual, but avoid food that contains lactic acid bacteria (fermented food, cottage cheese, yogurt, kefir) because these extra bacteria can reduce the effect of GutClear™ on the bacteria that have colonized the small intestine (SIBO) and whose levels we want to reduce.

    How do I maintain the effect of Gutlear?

    It's all about preventing new colonization (overgrowth) of bacteria in the small intestine and you can do this by taking 1-2 doses of GutClear® every week or when needed (when you recognize your previous discomforts from the belly).

    Stress negatively affects (inhibits) the body's longest nerve, the vagus nerve, whose nerve endings enter the intestinal wall and stimulate intestinal peristalsis (bowel movements) supporting digestion and also mediating anti-inflammatory effects in the gut mucosa.

    Inhibition of the vagus nerve by negative stress not only prevent normal digestion but also inhibits the valve between the large and the small intestine (the ileocecal valve). By this, the valve may not function properly, that is, does not keep tight.

    Since the important task of the ileocecal valve is to prevent leakage of bacteria from the large intestine to the small intestine, any activity that promotes the function of the vagus nerve and the proper function of the ileocecal valve may thus prevent reflux and overgrowth of bacteria to the small intestine. Stress-releasing activities including walking/strolling, mindfulness, yoga and - if possible – actively trying to avoid stress in your everyday life and at work and in social relations are considered beneficial via the positive effects on the vagus nerve.

    I notice a little difference but not quite, what should I do?

    We recommend that you continue to take GutClear™ at the same dose daily for another round in 10 days, or take 1-2 doses of GutClear™ per week during 5-10 weeks. 

    Why do you get an overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine?

    Stress is a natural part of our lives and is a function that can mobilize energy for special needs. Prolonged stress can, however, lead to an unbalance in the gut with elevated levels of bacteria in the small intestine. Digestion of dietary fibres normally takes place in the large intestine, which is adapted to handle large amounts of bacteria. When large numbers of bacteria are present in the small intestine, howver, this can lead to a local production of high amounts of bacterial side products including toxins which may negatively affect the immune- and nerve cells that are located in the small intestine and also lead to a tense and sore stomach. This overgrowth is called "small intestinal bacterial overgrowth" and is abbreviated SIBO. SIBO is not a diagnosis in itself but an abbreviation that is often used to describe the cluster of problems related to overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine.

    What can it mean to have too many bacteria in the small intestine?

    The small intestine is not made to handle high amounts of bacteria. With too many bacteria in the small intestine, a local digestion of dietary fibres occur there (instead of further down in the large intestine) and can result in the production of unfavourable gases and bacterial by-products that can irritate the small intestinal mucosa. This can negatively affect the nervous system and the immune system located in the wall of the small intestine.

    Why should we have 100 million times fewer bacteria in the small intestine than in the large intestine?

    The small intestine is sometimes called "the little brain" or “the second brain” because of the large number of nerve cells that are located along the wall of the small intestine. A large part of the body's immune system is also located along the wall of small intestine. By-products from the metabolism of bacteria can damage the mucosa of the small intestine and make it even more permeable (leaky gut) and thereby negatively affect the nerve and immune cells located in the wall of the small intestine. It is not uncommon for an overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine to negatively affect the functioning of the small intestine to such an extent that its ability to handle food that previously did not cause any problems, for example bread, milk products, eggs and fish is disturbed.

    Should you increase your dietary fibre intake if you have a sore and tense belly between meals?

    In the case of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine (SIBO), increased dietary fibre intake can provide additional nutrition to the bacteria in the small intestine and result in even higher production of gas and bacterial by-products, which may even worsen the problems you already have.

    How can GutClear™ help me?

    In GutClear™, the bioactive and antimicrobial substances are mixed with psyllium seeds which form a jelly-like mass from which these antimicrobial substances can be continuously secreted as it passes through the small intestine (like a teabag). By reducing the level of bacteria in the small intestine, bacterial digestion of dietary fibres and production of bacterial by-products such as gas and toxins may be prevented from occurring there and instead take place in the large intestine which, unlike the small intestine, is adapted for handling these by-products.

  • Scientific references

    We think it's important that you are informed of the scientific work supporting our statements. Here you will find scientific references that support our claims.

    References on the gastrointestinal system

    Wang, Shao-Xuan and Wu, Wan-Chun. ”Effects of psychological stress on small intestinal motility and bacteria and mucosa in mice.” World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11(13):2016-2021. doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i13.2016

    Chander Roland, Bani et al. “A Prospective Evaluation of Ileocecal Valve Dysfunction and Intestinal Motility Derangements in Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth.” Digestive diseases and sciences 62,12 (2017): 3525-3535. doi:10.1007/s10620-017-4726-4

    Jacobs, C et al. “Dysmotility and proton pump inhibitor use are independent risk factors for small intestinal bacterial and/or fungal overgrowth.” Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 37,11 (2013): 1103-11. doi:10.1111/apt.12304

    Rubin, M R et al. “Effect of bethanechol or vagal nerve stimulation on ileocecal sphincter pressure in the cat.” Gastroenterology vol. 80,5 pt 1 (1981): 974-9.

    References on dosage and intake of magnolia bark

    Sarrica, Andrea et al. “Safety and Toxicology of Magnolol and Honokiol.” Planta medica vol. 84,16 (2018): 1151-1164. doi:10.1055/a-0642-1966

    Poivre, Mélanie, and Pierre Duez. “Biological activity and toxicity of the Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis Rehder & E. Wilson (Houpo) and its constituents.” Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B 18,3 (2017): 194-214. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1600299

    REGULATION (EC) No 1924/2006 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 20 December 2006 concerning health claims made on foods

    Until the European Commission has decided on the approval or non-approval of health claims, companies are allowed to use these claims if there is scientific support for them.

    A. Health claims of Magnolia officinalis Rehder:

    • Supports the function of intestinal tract.
    • Helps maintaining gut regularity
    • Contributes to the normal function of the intestinal tract

    Scientific support regarding the contribution by Magnolia officialis Rehder to normal bowel function and regular bowel movements (Condition dosage: 200-800 mg / day where GutClear® contains 500 mg).

    1. Ho KY, Tsai CC, Chen CP, Huang JS, Lin CC. Antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis. Phytother Res. 2001 Mar;15(2):139-41. doi: 10.1002/ptr.736. PMID: 11268114. Magnolia has antimicrobial properties

    2. Tian, H., Zhao, L., Zhang, Q. et al. The Therapeutic Effects of Magnolia Officinalis Extraction on an Antibiotics-Induced Intestinal Dysbacteriosis in Mice. Curr Microbiol 77, 2413–2421 (2020). Animal study that showed that bark from Magnolia officinalis Rehder could normalize dysbiosis (unbalanced intestinal flora profile) after antibiotic treatment.

    3. Niu L, Hou Y, Jiang M, Bai G. The rich pharmacological activities of Magnolia officinalis and secondary effects based on significant intestinal contributions. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Dec 5;281:114524. Magnolia officinalis Rehder relieves a variety of symptoms, but especially abdominal pain and flatulence (tension / gas) and also has a good effect on functional digestive diseases (disorders of the intestine that make the gastrointestinal tract unable to work and move properly) . Magnolia officinalis Rehder and its main ingredients can also regulate the production of hormones from the intestinal wall and positively affect the metabolism, protect the intestinal barrier and positively affect the intestinal microbiota (intestinal flora). These mechanisms are considered to be effective in ameliorating local discomfort in the gastrointestinal tract.

    4. Du E, Fan Q, Zhao N, Zhang W, Wei J, Chen F, Huang S, Guo W. Supplemental magno- lol improves the antioxidant capacity and intestinal health of broiler chickens. Anim Sci J. 2021 Dec;92(1):e13665. Magnolol from Magnolia officinalis Reher has been shown in animal experiments to promote antioxidant mechanisms and intestinal health.

    5. Oh S, Gadde UD, Bravo D, Lillehoj EP, Lillehoj HS. Growth-Promoting and Antioxidant Effects of Magnolia Bark Extract in Chickens Uninfected or Co-Infected with Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima as an Experimental Model of Necrotic Enteritis. Curr Dev Nutr. 2018 Jan 30;2(4):nzy009. Dietary supplements with bark extract from Magnolia officinalis Rehder were shown to increase growth in animals infected with the disease-causing bacterium Clostridium perfringens (a potentially deadly bacterium).

    6. Chen F, Zhang H, Du E, Fan Q, Zhao N, Jin F, Zhang W, Guo W, Huang S, Wei J. Sup- plemental magnolol or honokiol attenuates adverse effects in broilers infected with Salmonella pullorum by modulating mucosal gene expression and the gut microbiota. J Anim Sci Biotechnol. 2021 Aug 9;12(1):87. Extracts from Magnolia officinalis Rehder exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the disease-causing bacteria Salmonella pullorum in animal experiments.

    7. Zhao L, Xiao HT, Mu HX, Huang T, Lin ZS, Zhong LLD, Zeng GZ, Fan BM, Lin CY, Bian ZX. Magnolol, a Natural Polyphenol, Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice. Molecules. 2017 Jul 20;22(7):1218. Magnolol from Magnolia officinalis Rehder exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in colitis in animal tests, the underlying mechanisms being linked to the restoration of tryptophan metabolites which have an inhibitory effect on colitis.

    8. Xia T, Zhang J, Han L, Jin Z, Wang J, Li X, Man S, Liu C, Gao W. Protective effect of magnolol on oxaliplatin-induced intestinal injury in mice. Phytother Res. 2019 Apr;33(4):1161-1172. Magnolia officinalis Rehder had a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa of mice undergoing cytotoxic therapy, reducing diarrhea and intestinal mucosal damage. Magnolia officinalis Rehder reduced inflammatory markers, as well as improved markers for intestinal mucosal integrity. The intestinal flora which had been disturbed by chemotherapy was significantly reversed by Magnolia officinalis. Thus, Magnolia officinalis can prevent the development and progression of the mucositis seen after chemotherapy.

    9. Xie Q, Li H, Ma R, Ren M, Li Y, Li J, Chen H, Chen Z, Gong D, Wang J. Effect of Coptis chinensis franch and Magnolia officinalis on intestinal flora and intestinal barrier in a TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis rats model. Phytomedicine. 2022 Jan 5;97:153927. The levels of probiotic bacteria such as Akkermansia and Blautia increased in a product containing Coptic chinensis and Magnolia officialis. The probiotic bacteria Allobaculum and Alloprevotella increased only in the Magnolia officialis group. In addition, Coptic chinensis and Magnolia officialis were also shown to inhibit the inflammatory response of this animal model of Ulcerative Colitis and to increase the integrity of the intestinal

    10. Chan SS, Zhao M, Lao L, Fong HH, Che CT. Magnolol and honokiol account for the anti- spasmodic effect of Magnolia officinalis in isolated guinea pig ileum. Planta Med. 2008 Mar;74(4):381- 4. This animal experiment showed that extracts from Magnolia officinalis have an antispasmodic effect in isolated small intestine (ileum). This is relevant, for example, in IBS.

    11. Jeong SI, Kim YS, Lee MY, Kang JK, Lee S, Choi BK, Jung KY. Regulation of contractile activity by magnolol in the rat isolated gastrointestinal tracts. Pharmacol Res. 2009 Mar;59(3):183-8. The substance magnolol, derived from Magnolia officinalis Rehder, had a positive effect on the intestinal peristalsis of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum) and this mechanism was mediated in part by activating receptors for acetylcholine and serotonin.

    12. Park Inkyung, Oh Sungtaek, Lillehoj Erik. P., Lillehoj Hyun S., Dietary Supplementation With Magnolia Bark Extract Alters Chicken Intestinal Metabolite Levels, Frontiers in Veterinary Science, Vol 7, p. 157 (2020). Animal study showing that bark from Magnolia officinalis Rehder can replace classic antibiotics for growth-promoting purposes in veterinary medicine.

    13. Poivre M, Duez P. Biological activity and toxicity of the Chinese herb Magnolia offici- nalis Rehder & E. Wilson (Houpo) and its constituents. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2017 Mar.;18(3):194-214. The bark from Magnolia officinalis Rehder has traditionally been used for the treatment of e.g. anxiety, asthma, depression, gastrointestinal disorders and headaches. A number of pharmacological activities have been reported for Magnolia officinalis Rehder in particular antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and antispasmodic effects. This review of articles confirms in vitro and in vivo studies and indicates a number of beneficial properties of Magnolia officinalis Rehder as well as its use, pharmacology and safety.

    14. Sarrica A, Kirika N, Romeo M, Salmona M, Diomede L. Safety and Toxicology of Mag- nolol and Honokiol. Planta Med. 2018 Nov;84(16):1151-1164. In recent years, various food safety authorities have evaluated magnolol and honokiol from Magnolia officinalis Rehder and considered them safe.

    15. Li N, Song Y, Zhang W, Wang W, Chen J, Wong AW, Roberts A. Evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of magnolia bark extract. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Dec;49(3):154-9. These in vitro results show that bark extract from Magnolia officinalis Rehder is not genotoxic (i.e. do not affect the genome) and supports the safety of bark extract from Magnolia officinalis Rehder for consumption.

    16. Liu Z, Zhang X, Cui W, Zhang X, Li N, Chen J, Wong AW, Roberts A. Evaluation of short-term and subchronic toxicity of magnolia bark extract in rats. Regul Toxicol Phar- macol. 2007 Dec;49(3):160-71. These results support the safety of bark extracts from Magnolia officinalis Rehder for oral consumption.

    B. Health claims for Plantago ovata (also called Husk and Ispaghula):

    • Contributes to intestinal transit and intestinal function
    • Helps to maintain a healthy bowel and facilitate intestinal transit.
    • Facilitates digestion

    Scientific support for the contribution of Plantago ovata to normal bowel function, intestinal passage and digestion (Condition dosage: 0.5-20 g / day, where GutClear® contains 1.5g)

    1. Shah BR, Li B, Al Sabbah H, Xu W, Mráz J. Effects of prebiotic dietary fibers and probi- otics on human health: With special focus on recent advancement in their encapsulated formulations. Trends Food Sci Technol. 2020 Aug;102:178-192. These findings suggest that Plantago ovata may protect the intestinal mucosa, investigated by studying the effect of acetylsalicylic acid and its penetration into intestinal epithelial cells

    2. Jalanka J, Major G, Murray K, Singh G, Nowak A, Kurtz C, Silos-Santiago I, Johnston JM, de Vos WM, Spiller R. The Effect of Psyllium Husk on Intestinal Microbiota in Consti- pated Patients and Healthy Controls. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jan 20;20(2):433. After ingestion of Psyllium ovata, a significant increase was found in three genera of bacteria known to produce butyric acid (Lachnospira, Roseburia and Faecalibacterium) and that the presence of these correlated with increased fecal water content and less constipation. In summary, psyllium supplements increased the water content of the stool, which was associated with increased levels of "favorable" bacteria and that this was most marked in patients with constipation.

    3. Marteau P, Flourié B, Cherbut C, Corrèze JL, Pellier P, Seylaz J, Rambaud JC. Digest- ibility and bulking effect of ispaghula husks in healthy humans. Gut. 1994 Dec;35(12):1747-52. doi: 10.1136/gut.35.12.1747. PMID: 7829013; PMCID: PMC1375264. Concentrations of "beneficial" short-chain fatty acids (butyric acid, propionic acid and acetic acid) increased after ingestion of Psyllium ovata. In summary, Psyllium ovata is more resistant to fermentation than previously reported in humans. Its bulk effect was therefore largely due to undigested (non-fermented) material that could pass through the intestinal tract.

    4. Elli M, Cattivelli D, Soldi S, Bonatti M, Morelli L. Evaluation of prebiotic potential of refined psyllium (Plantago ovata) fiber in healthy women. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 Sep;42 Suppl 3 Pt 2:S174- 6. Psyllium husks can be metabolized by Bifidobacteria with the potential to increase these beneficial bacteria in people who have low levels of these.

    5. Yakoob J, Jafri W, Mehmood MH, Abbas Z, Tariq K. Cytokine changes in gastric and colonic epithelial cell in response to Planta ovata extract. J Complement Integr Med. 2017 Mar 21;14(2):/j/jcim.2017.14.issue-2/jcim-2015-0075/jcim-2015-0075.xml. Plantago ovata extract had an anti-inflammatory effect on cell lines from the colon mucosa affected by disease-causing Helicobacter pylori and E. coli bacteria.

    6. Gunn D, Abbas Z, Harris HC, Major G, Hoad C, Gowland P, Marciani L, Gill SK, Warren FJ, Rossi M, Remes-Troche JM, Whelan K, Spiller RC. Psyllium reduces inulin-induced colonic gas production in IBS: MRI and in vitrofermentation studies. Gut. 2021 Aug 5:gutjnl-2021-324784. This study showed that co-administration of psyllium with inulin reduced gas production in IBS.

    7. Cabré E. Irritable bowel syndrome: can nutrient manipulation help? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Sep;13(5):581-7. Patients with IBS are recommended to eat a balanced diet without restrictions and exclusion diets are not useful in most of IBS cases. The concept that increased fiber intake could alleviate IBS is not true for all patients and hydrophilic colloids (eg psyllium) are therefore preferred.

    8. Ashraf W, Park F, Lof J, Quigley EM. Effects of psyllium therapy on stool characteris- tics, colon transit and anorectal function in chronic idiopathic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995; 9: 639– 47. Psyllium increases the frequency of bowel movements and improves the consistency of the stool in cases of constipation by unknown cause (idiopathic). The beneficial effects of psyllium on constipation are mainly considered to be related to a facilitation of the bowel process itself (defecation).

    9. El-Salhy M, Ystad SO, Mazzawi T, Gundersen D. Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review). Int J Mol Med. 2017 Sep;40(3):607-613. doi: 10.3892/i- jmm.2017.3072. Epub 2017 Jul 19. PMID: 28731144; PMCID: PMC5548066. Fiber supplements, especially Psyllium ovata, are both safe and effective in improving IBS symptoms.

    10. Bijkerk CJ, de Wit NJ, Muris JW, Whorwell PJ, Knottnerus JA, Hoes AW. Soluble or insoluble fibre in irritable bowel syndrome in primary care? Randomised placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2009 Aug 27;339:b3154. Psyllium ovata offers benefits for patients with irritable bowel syndrome in primary care.

    11. Bijkerk CJ, Muris JW, Knottnerus JA, Hoes AW, de Wit NJ. Systematic review: the role of different types of fibre in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharma- col Ther. 2004 Feb 1;19(3):245-51. Psyllium ovata showed significantly improved conditions in people with IBS, while insoluble fibers (maize, wheat bran) in some cases worsened the clinical result.

    12. Eswaran, Shanti MD; Muir, Jane PhD2; Chey, William D MD, AGAF, FACG, FACP1Fiber and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, American Journal of Gastroenterology: May 2013 - Volume 108 - Issue 5 - p 718-727. When fiber is recommended for functional bowel disease (IBS), the use of a soluble supplement such as Psyllium ovata is best supported by current research results.

    13. Halmos EP. When the low FODMAP diet does not work. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Mar;32 Suppl 1:69-72. If low FODMAP is not effective, patients can benefit from psyllium, which has an exceptional water holding capacity and can provide a normalized stool consistency.

    14. Bliss DZ, Jung HJ, Savik K et al.Supplementation with dietary fiber improves fecal incontinence. Nurs. Res. 2001; 50: 203–213. An example of a therapy that focuses on normalizing stool consistency and reducing stool frequency with the use of the fiber supplement Psyllium ovata.

    15. Prior A, Whorwell PJ. Double blind study of ispaghula in irritable bowel syndrome. Gut. 1987 Nov;28(11):1510-3. doi: 10.1136/gut.28.11.1510. PMID: 3322956; PMCID: PMC1433676. Ispaghula (Psyllium oavata) significantly improves the overall well-being of patients with IBS especially in those people who also have constipation, where bowel habits and transit time are positively affected.

    16. Yang C, Liu S, Li H, Bai X, Shan S, Gao P, Dong X. The effects of psyllium husk on gut microbiota composition and function in chronically constipated women of reproductive age using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Jun 3;13(11):15366-15383. doi: 10.18632/aging.203095. Epub 2021 Jun 3. PMID: 34081625; PMCID: PMC8221300. These findings suggest that the composition of the intestinal microbiota changed and that symptoms of constipation were relieved by ingestion of Psyllium ovata.